The Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus began his campaigns against the Kingdom of Croatia and Hungary in 1151, and by 1164, had secured the submission of the Dalmatian cities back under Imperial rule. Having won a decisive victory against Kingdom of Croatia and Hungary in 1167 at the Battle of Sirmium, consolidating his gains, the Emperor suddenly broke with Venice as well, and sent a fleet of 150 ships to the Adriatic. Split was to remain in Byzantine hands until Manuel’s death in 1180, when Béla III of Hungary moved to restore Hungarian power in Dalmatia. The city remained loyal to the Empire, resisting the re-establishment of Hungarian rule, and consequently, upon its inevitable submission, was punished with the King’s refusal to renew its ancient privileges. In 1105 Coloman, King of Hungary, having conquered the Kingdom of Croatia, reneged on its alliance with Venice and moved on the coastal towns, besieging and taking Zadar. Split and Trogir decided then to surrender upon guarantee of their ancient privileges.The rights granted to the city were substantial.
In the same period it achieved an as yet unsurpassed GDP and employment level, still above the present day’s, growing into a significant Yugoslav city. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia.
Culture flourished as well, Split being the hometown of Marko Marulić, the Croatian national poet. Marulić’s most acclaimed work, Judita , was an epic poem about Judith and Holofernes, widely held to be the first modern work of Croatian literature. In Latin, the name became Spalatum or Aspalatum, which in the Middle Ages evolved into Aspalathum, Spalathum, Spalatrum, and Spalatro in the Dalmatian language of the city’s Romance population. The Croatian term became Split or Spljet, while the Italian-language version, Spalato, became universal in international usage by the Early Modern Period. In the late 19th century, the Croatian name increasingly came to prominence, and officially replaced Spalato in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after World War I. It became a prominent settlement around 650 when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona.
The city constructed a new sporting arena for the event, the Spaladium Arena. The cost of the arena was evenly divided between the city and the government. Ivano Balić, two time IHF World Player of the Year is the most famous handball player to come from Split. Swimming also has a long tradition in Split, with Đurđica Bjedov , Duje Draganja and Vanja Rogulj as the most famous swimmers from the city. As a member of the ASK Split athletics club, the champion Blanka Vlašić also originates from the city. The biggest sports events to be held in Split were the 1979 Mediterranean Games, and the 1990 European Athletics Championships.
Between September and October 1941 alone, ten officials of the Italian fascist occupation were assassinated by the citizens. On 12 June 1942, a fascist mob attacked the city’s synagogue, and destroyed its library and archive. Soon after Hajduk became the official football club of the Partisan movement. After the Illyrian Wars of 229 and 219 BC, the city of Salona, only a short distance from Spálathos, became the capital of the Roman Province of Dalmatia and one of the largest cities of the late empire with 60,000 people. The history of Spálathos becomes obscure for a while at this point, being overshadowed by that of nearby Salona, to which it would later become successor.
In this paper we prove statistical stability for a large class of diffeomorphisms admitting an invariant dominated splitting with mostly expanding center-unstable direction. However, further work is required to establish the meaning and significance of the various splits in these diagrams. Each inflorescence develops in a leaf axil and is enclosed in a peduncular bract that splits longitudinally along its ventral surface at anthesis.
Many new hotels are being built, as well as new apartment and office buildings. Many large development projects are being revived, and new infrastructure is being built. An example of one of the latest large city projects is the Spaladium Arena, built in 2009. In 1809, after a brief war with France, Austria ceded Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia west of the Sava River, Gorizia and Trieste to France. These territories, along with Dalmatia, formed the Illyrian Provinces.
Split is situated on a peninsula between the eastern part of the Gulf of Kaštela and the Split Channel. The Kozjak (779 m ) and Mosor (1,339 m ) ridges protect the city from the north and northeast, and separate it from the hinterland. Introduced in 1967, it was based on the Medieval rectangular arms, dating at least from the 14th century . Overall view of Split in the Early modern period , an engraving by Scottish architect Robert Adam. During the 20-year Hungarian civil war between King Sigismund and the Capetian House of Anjou of the Kingdom of Naples, the losing contender, Ladislaus of Naples, sold his disputed rights on Dalmatia to the Venetian Republic for 100,000 ducats. Acting on the pretext, the Republic took over in the city by the year 1420.
Residents of Split prefer to call their city as «the sportiest city in the world». The main football club is HNK Hajduk Split, one of the most popular clubs in Croatia supported by a large fan association known as Torcida Split, while RNK Split is the city’s second club. The largest football stadium is the Poljud Stadium (Hajduk’s ground), with around 35,000 capacity (55,000 prior to the renovation to an all-seater). Slaven Bilić, Aljoša Asanović, Igor Tudor, and Stipe Pletikosa are some of the famous Split natives who started their careers at Hajduk. Basketball is also popular, and the city basketball club, KK Split, holds the record of winning the EuroLeague three consecutive times (1989–1991), with notable players like Toni Kukoč and Dino Rađa, both of whom are Split natives. After World War II, Split became a part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, itself a constituent sovereign republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
It has hot, moderately dry summers and mild, wet winters, which can occasionally feel cold, because of the strong northern wind bura. January is the coldest month, with an average low temperature around 5 °C (41 °F). November is the wettest month, with a precipitation total of nearly 113 mm (4.45 in) and 12 rainy days. July is the driest month, with a precipitation total of around 26 mm (1.02 in).
Split is also becoming a major cruise ship destination, with over 260 ship visits, carrying 130,000 passengers. They were by far the strongest club in the former Yugoslavia and they are also by far the most successful club in modern-day Croatia. Picigin is a traditional local sport , played on the famous sandy Bačvice beach. It is played in very shallow water (just ankle-deep) with a small ball. There is a tradition of playing picigin in Split on New Year’s Day, regardless of the weather conditions, in spite of the sea temperature rarely exceeding 15 °C (59 °F). One of the most recognisable aspects of Split culture is popular music.
After the Cvetković-Maček agreement, Split became the part of new administrative unit , Banovina of Croatia in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The cities remained in Venetian hands without contest during the reign of Béla II. But in 1141, his successor, King Géza II, having conquered Bosnian lands, marched to Split and Trogir, both voluntarily accepting him as overlord. This turned out to be a definitive conquest, as Venetian rule was not to return to Split for another 186 years.
During the period the city experienced its largest economic and demographic boom. Dozens of new factories and companies were founded with the city population tripling during the period. Today the Croatian national baseball team (with 10 or more members coming from Split’s Nada team) is ranked 25th in the world. Split’s team, Nada, plays its home games at the old Hajduk stadium, where the rugby club also plays. The team’s main rival is Zagreb and there are teams from half a dozen other cities around the country. In addition to playing other Croatian teams, inter-league games are played and the team travels to Belgrade and other cities to play.
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Split was to pay no tribute, it was to choose its own count and archbishop whom the king would confirm, it preserved its old Roman laws, and appointed its own judge. Dues from trade , were divided between the count, the archbishop, and the king, and no foreigner was to live within the walls of the city against the will of the citizens. These rights were generally upheld by Hungarian kings, but there were inevitable incidents of violation. Throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, Split was raided by the Narentines . Therefore, the city offered its allegiance to Venice and in 998 the Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo, led a large naval expedition which defeated the Narentines the same year.
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After obtaining permission from Emperor Basil II in Constantinople, Orseolo proclaimed himself Duke of Dalmatia. The title «Duke of Dalmatia» seems to have been dropped at this point by the Venetian doges. In 1069 Peter Krešimir IV, King of Croatia, gained control over Dalmatian islands and cities, including Split, and stretched his rule south to Neretva.
Many recreational facilities were also constructed with federal funding, especially for the 1979 Mediterranean Games, such as the Poljud Stadium. The city also became the largest passenger and military port in Yugoslavia, housing the headquarters of the Yugoslav Navy and the Army’s Coastal Military District . In the period between 1945 and 1990, the city was transformed and expanded, taking up the vast majority of the Split peninsula.
Puerto de Split
Notable composers include Josip Hatze, Ivo Tijardović, Zdenko Runjić – some of the most influential musicians in former Yugoslavia. There is great cultural activity during summers, when the prestigious Split Music Festival is held, followed by the Split Summer theater festival. Since 2013, the Ultra Europe electronic music festival is held at the Poljud stadium in July. In a tragic turn of events, besides being bombed by axis forces, the city was also bombed by the Allies, causing hundreds of deaths. Partisans finally captured the city on 26 October 1944 and instituted it as the provisional capital of Croatia. On 12 February 1945 the Kriegsmarine conducted a daring raid on the Split harbour, damaging the British cruiser Delhi.
The above two groups are distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their ethnicity and traditional Chakavian speech, from the more numerous Shtokavian-speaking immigrants from the rural Zagora hinterland, referred to as the Vlaji . The latter joined the Fetivi and Boduli as a third group in the decades since World War II, thronging the high-rise suburbs that stretch away from the centre. By now the Vlaji constitute a decided majority of inhabitants, causing a distinct shift in the overall ethnic characteristics of the city.
In 1979, the historic center of Split was included into the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Its literary tradition can be traced to medieval times, and includes names like Marko Marulić, while in more modern times Split excelled by authors famous for their sense of humor. Among them the most notable is Miljenko Smoje, famous for his TV series Malo misto and Velo misto, with the latter dealing with the development of Split into a modern city. The shipbuilding industry was particularly successful and Yugoslavia, with its Croatian shipyards, became one of the world’s top nations in the field.