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John Paul Jones (born John Paul; July 6, 1747 - July 18, 1792) is the first known U.S. naval commander in the American Revolutionary War. He made many friends among American political elites (including John Hancock and Benjamin Franklin), as well as enemies (who accused him of piracy), and his actions in British waters during the revolution gained an international reputation that still exists today. As such, he is sometimes referred to as the "father of the U.S. Navy" (a sobriety he shares with John Barry and John Adams). Jones was born and raised in Scotland, became a sailor, and served as commander of several merchants. After killing a member of his crew by sword, he fled to the Colony of Virginia and, around 1775, joined the newly established Continental Navy in their battle against the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War. He commanded US Navy ships stationed in France and led one attack on Britain, resulting in a failure, and few on British merchant ships. He left without command in 1787, joined the Imperial Russian Navy and earned the rank of rear admiral.